Dennis Pagen Books

Hang Gliding, Paragliding, Powered Paragliding and other ultralight aviation Books

Towing Aloft
Table of Contents


Back to Towing Aloft Description

PREFACE

PART I - TOWING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT

CHAPTER 1 - AN INTRODUCTION TO TOWING

I - The Story of Towing
From the Beginning - The Rebirth of Towing - Modern Towing - Paragliding Towing - Where To Now?

II - Understanding Towing
Towing Instruction - Some Terminology - Towing Types (Aerotowing, Static Line Towing, Retrieve or Pulley Tow, Reel-in or Stationary Winch, Payout Winch, Variations) - Comparing Towing Types (Aerotowing, Static Line Towing, Reel-in or Stationary Winch, Payout Winch Towing) - Hand Towing and Tethering Caution! - Towing Safety

CHAPTER 2 - TOWING EQUIPMENT

I - Towing Bridles
The Evolution of Bridles - Hang Gliding Bridle Types (Bridle Construction, The Skyting Bridle, Skyting Bridle Attachment, One-to-One V Bridles, Single Point Bridle Aerotowing, Single Point Bridle Surface Towing, Two-stage Single Point System, Tandem Bridles, Bridle Summary, Paraglider Bridles and Tow Bars, Attachment to Ultralight Sailplanes)

II - Releases
The Ring Release - The String Release - Tubular Webbing Release - Schweizer Style Release - Two-Stage Release - The Linknife - Other Releases - Other Concerns - Release Lines

III - Weak Links
Weak Links and Lockouts - Construction of Weak Links - Desired Breaking Thresholds (Hang Glider Thresholds, Paragliders and Ultralight Sailplanes) - Minimizing Weak Link Failure

IV - Towlines
Towlines and Towing Methods (Payout Winch, Static Line Towing, Aerotowing, Stationary or Reel-in Winch, Boat Towing) - Towline Options (Polypropylene, Polyester, Ultraline, Kevlar, Spectra, Nylon, Steel Cable) - Towline Preparation - Towline Maintenance

V - Towline Parachutes
Drogue Chute Types (Round or Conical Parachutes, Parafoil Type Parachutes) - Drogue Chute Deployment Systems (Chute Held Collapsed by Line Tension, Deployment Bag Held Closed by Line Tension, Deployment Bag Tripped by Towline Separation From Release, Deployment Bag Mounted on Glider, Harness, Release or Bridle) - Other Precautions

VI - Ground Launch Dollies
Good Dolly Design - Attitude Check - Sloping Ground

VII - Safety Equipment
Radio Equipment - First Aid Kit - Emergency Data List - Hook Knife - Glasses - Cellular Phones- Wheels

CHAPTER 3 - TOWING RIGS

I - Payout Winch Equipment
Types of Payout Winch Systems (The Hydraulically Braked Winch, Friction Brakes Winch) - Operating Controls (Hydraulic Winch, Friction Winch) - Drum Speed Indicators - Line Tension Control Problems (Changing Spool Diameter, Changing Lateral Angle, Changing Vertical Angle - Avoiding Line Tension Errors (Line Guides) - Winch Drums (Line Wrap Change, Drum Inertia, Line Leveling, Drum Strength) - Level-Wind Systems (By Hand, Manual Systems, Automatic Levelers, Line Guides) - Electrical Equipment (Automotive Starters, Batteries) - Launch Platform (Airspeed Indicator, Platform Launch Cradle, The Nose Release, Safety Considerations) - Miscellaneous Maintenance - Brake Fluid

II - Boat Towing Equipment
The Boat - Tow Winch Equipment - The Glider - Hang Glider Floats - Harnesses - Parachutes - Miscellaneous and Safety Equipment

III - Static Line Towing Equipment
Tension Measurement Systems (The Hydraulic Cylinder, Pressure Lines) - Pressure Gauge - Towline Management (Rewind Systems) - Pulleys (Pulley Types, Pulley Anchors)

IV - Stationary Winches
Hydraulic Systems - Mechanical Drive Winches (Scooter Winches, Car Winches) - Tension Measuring Systems - Winch Drums - Level-Wind and Guide Systems - Safety Systems - Line Retrieval


PART II - SURFACE TOWING

CHAPTER 4 - LEAVING THE GROUND
I - The Tow Site
Airports - Open Fields and Roads

II - Tow Forces
Effects of Tow Forces - Lockouts (Paragliding Lockouts, Hang Glider Lockouts, Severe Lockouts)

III - Launching Under tow
Launching a Paraglider (Forward Inflation Tow Launches, Reverse Inflation Tow Launches, Crosswind Launches, Visual Signs for Paragliding Tows) - Launching Hang Glider (Foot-Launching Preparation, Into the Air, Skyting Bridle Launches, Control on-Line, Crosswind Foot Launches, Dolly Launching a Hang Glider Setup, Dolly Launching Pilot Preparation, Dolly Launch, Wheel launching, Hang Glider Visual Signals, Platform Launching Preparation, Setting the Nose Release, Cradle and Retainer Considerations, Connecting the Towline, Platform Launching Technique I, Platform Launching Technique II) - Launching an Ultralight Sailplane (Launch Preparation, Launch Procedures, Crosswind Takeoffs, Failure to Release)

CHAPTER 5 - THE CLIMBOUT AND RELEASE

I - Flying a Paraglider on Tow
Condition Factors - Control on Tow - Tracking the Line - Crosswinds Climbouts - Maximizing Climbout - Releasing from Tow

II - Flying a Hang Glider on Tow
Controlling Roll and Position - Yaw Corrections - Oscillating on Tow (Stability Fins) - Speed Control - Line Tension Effect

III - Crosswind Operations
Site Requirements - Flying Procedures -

IV - Maximizing Altitude
Efficient Flying - Understanding Maximum Climb - Finding Proper Tow Angles of Attack - Skyting Bridles and V Bridles

V - Terminating the Tow
High Tension Release - Stowing the Bridle - Dropping the Line

VI - Advanced Techniques
Slingshoting - Circuit Towing - Step Towing (The Step Tow Method, Step Towing Equipment, Step Tow Procedures Stationary Winch, Step Tow procedures Payout Winch)

VII - Tandem Towing
Launching - Flying Tandem on Tow

VIII - Emergency Procedures
Situation Awareness - Escaping Lockouts - Release Failures (Landing With the Line) - Line Breaks - Tension Control Failures (Too Little Tension, Too Much Tension) - Line Snags on a Glider - Line Snag on a Wing

CHAPTER 6 - OPERATING TOW SYSTEMS

I - The Tow Team
Ideal Tow Personnel - Launch Observer - Winch Operator - Vehicle Driver - Pulley Monitor

II - Launching
Radio Communications - Tow Team Task for Launching Paraglider (Preparing to Launch, Line Tensions) - Tow Team Tasks for Foot Launching a Hang Glider (Launch Observer Duties, Towline Tension Control) - Tow Team Task for Dolly Launching a Hang Glider (Launch Observer Duties, Towline Tension Control)

III - Glider Climbout
Tow Force Changes - Tow Force Limits (Hang Glider Tow Force Limits, Paraglider Tow Force Limits, Ultralight Sailplane Tow Force Limits)

IV - Safe Towing Procedures
Benign Paragliding Problems - Dealing With Paraglider Emergencies (Lockout Defense, Canopy Problems, Release Problems) - Hang Glider Problems

V - Payout Winch Towing
Pre-Operation Preparations - Preparing for Foot and Dolly Launches (Laying out the Line, Pre-Tow Inspection) - Commencing the Tow Foot and Dolly Launches (Start Methods, Launching) - Preparation for Platform Launch (Arranging the Glider, Hooking up the Pilot and Line) - Commencing the Launch Platform Launches - Completing the Tow All Payout Winches (Line Retrieval, Line Snags) - Boat Tow Operations (Shore Operations, Boat Launching, Handling the Towline, Equipment Matters)

VI - Static Line Operations
Pre-Operation Preparations (Line Lengths, Stopping Point for Return Pulley Tows) - Preparing for Each Tow (Laying out The Line With a Rewind Reel, Laying out the Line Without a Reel, Pre-Tow Inspection) - Towline Ground Friction - Commencing the Launch and Tow Process (Paraglider Procedures, Hang Glider Procedures, Gearing and Traction, Controlling Speed and Tension) - Completing the Tow (Retrieving the Line With a Reel, Retrieving the Line Without a Reel, Retrieval With a Pulley System) - Emergency Procedures (Terminating the Tow, Emergency Line Entanglements, Pulley Monitoring, Tension Gauge Failures, Failure to Release)

VII - Stationary Winch Operations
Pre-Operation Preparations - Preparing for Each Tow (Laying out the Line, Pre-Tow Inspection Commencing the Launch and Tow Process (Launching, The Climbout) - Completing the Tow - Emergency Procedures
VIII - Airport Operations
Runway Designation - Airport Patterns - Airport Procedures - Towline Considerations - Airport Communications (Airplane Talk, Radio Frequencies) - Line Strikes

PART III - AIR-TO-AIR TOWING

CHAPTER 7 - PREPARING FOR AEROTOWING

I - Aerotowing from the Beginning
Solving the Problems

II - Aerotowing Operations
Operating Areas - Operating Conditions

III - Towing Signals
Ground Signals - Aerial Signals

IV - Aerotowing Equipment
Towlines (Towline Lengths, Towline Construction) - Aerotowing Bridles (Two-Point Bridle, Single-Point Bridle) - Aerotowing Releases (Tug Releases, Aerotowing Glider Releases, Attaching the Primary Release, Shoulder Releases and Secondary Releases) - Weak Links (The Tug Weak Link, The Glider Weak Link)


 

CHAPTER 8 - THE AEROTOWING LAUNCH

I - Aerotow Launch Methods
By Foot or by Dolly (Dolly or Trolley Launch, Foot Launching)

II - Dolly Launching Techniques
Preparing for Launch (Loading the Dolly, Hooking in, Hooking in to the Towline) - The Takeoff Two-Point Bridle - What you Should Do - The Takeoff Single-Point Bridle

III - Aerotow Foot Launching
Getting Ready - Taking off on Foot - What you Should Do

IV - Launching in Various Conditions
Crosswinds on Launch - Turbulent Launches

V - Emergency Procedures
Weak Link Break - Crooked Tow - Premature Releases

CHAPTER 9 - THE AEROTOW CLIMBOUT

I - Flying Under Tow
Pitching for Position - Roll Controls - Oscillating Under Tow - Following a Tug - Flying in Varied Conditions (Crosswinds, Thermals) - Aerotow Lockouts

II - Releasing from Tow
Release Procedures - Finding Thermals - Emergency Procedures (Emergency Release, Failure to Release, Flying With the Towline)

CHAPTER 10 - AEROTOWING OPERATIONS

I - Starting a Club
Aerotowing Costs - Your Field of Operation - Legal Matters - Operating Efficiently

II - The Tug
Tug Maintenance - The Tug Pilot (Learning to Tow, Landing With the Line, Towing Inexperienced Pilots, Outlandings)

III - Dual Towing
Launching Dual - Dual Flying Under Tow

IV - Towing in Competition
Equipment - Towing at a Meet - Releasing in Thermals - Towing Traffic

APPENDIX I - TOWING THEORY

APPENDIX II - USEFUL KNOTS

APPENDIX III - RELEASE TEST PROCEDURES

APPENDIX IV - USEFUL ADDRESSES

INDEX

 

 

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